1. The Sin of the Spies.  Shortly after exiting Egypt and receiving the Torah, Moses sent spies to Israel in advance of the intended return to the land of Israel. Unfortunately, the spies brought back a “slanderous report” and convinced the people that they could not prevail in a war against the current inhabitants. The people lost faith and said they didn’t want to go to Israel. G-d obliged them, decreeing that they would stay in the dessert for 40 years, after which their children would enter the land.
  2. The Destruction of the First Temple. In 586 BCE the Temple was destroyed by Nevuchadnetzar and the Babylonians.
  3. The Destruction of the Second Temple. In the year 69, the Temple was destroyed by Titus and the Romans.
  4. The Destruction of Beitar. Decades after the destruction of the Temple, the Jews led by Bar Kochba, rebelled against Rome. At first successful, the rebellion was eventually put down brutally. Bar Kochba, (whom even some great rabbis thought was the Messiah), was killed, and Beitar was destroyed. Jewish autonomy in Israel would cease for almost two thousand years.
  5. The Temple Mount Was Plowed Under. Adding insult to injury, the Temple Mount was “plowed like a field”.  Jerusalem was replaced by a city of pagans, and any Jew who entered Jerusalem did so at the risk of death.

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